Type 1 Diabetes Pathophysiology

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disorder that occurs in genetically susceptible individuals and that may be precipitated by environmental factors. In a susceptible individual, the immune system is triggered to develop an autoimmune response against altered pancreatic beta cell antigens, or molecules in beta cells that resemble a viral protein. Approximately 85% of T1D patients have circulating islet cell antibodies, and the majority of patients also have detectable anti-insulin antibodies. Most islet cell antibodies are directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) within pancreatic beta cells (1).

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