Mechanisms of Adverse Effects of Hyperglycemia in Acute Illness: A Review of the Basic Science

Key Points

  • Hyperglycemia and insulin regulation play both a direct and indirect role in the cellular mechanisms underlying inflammation and oxidative stress.

  • Free fatty acids generated by hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency also result in endothelial dysfunction and the generation of reactive oxygen species.

  • Hyperglycemia consistently promotes inflammation.

  • The role of insulin in mediating inflammation is more complicated.

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