Clinical Presentation of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Risk Factors

The risk factors for the development of both prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are as follows:1

  • Age ≥45 years
  • Family history of T2D
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Being overweight or obese (BMI >25 kg/m2)
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Nonwhite ancestry (Asian, African American, Hispanic, Native American, or Pacific Islander)
  • Increased levels of triglycerides (>250 mg/dL), low concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C
  • Previously identified impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, and/or metabolic syndrome
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), acanthosis nigricans, or nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • Hypertension
  • History of gestational diabetes mellitus
  • Delivery of a baby weighing more than 4 kg (9 lbs)
  • Antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia and/or severe bipolar disease
  • Antipsychotic therapy for schizophrenia and/or severe bipolar disease
  • Chronic glucocorticoid exposure
  • Sleep disorders in the presence of glucose intolerance (A1C >5.7%, IGT, or IFG on previous testing), including OSA, chronic sleep deprivation, and night-shift occupation
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